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À moitié plein ou à moitié vide ? Pour vous ?
Half full or half empty? What do you think?
Les optimistes pensent que le verre est à moitié plein, alors que les pessimistes pensent que le verre est à moitié vide.
Optimists think the glass is half full, while pessimists think the glass is half empty.
Mais si vous êtes optimiste, vous ne partagez pas forcément les idées de Leibniz.
But if you are optimistic, you do not necessarily share the ideas of Leibniz.
Leibniz est un philosophe, auteur notamment d'un ouvrage publié à Amsterdam en 1710, La Théodicée, dans lequel l'auteur défend la position que tout ce qui existe est bien.
Leibniz is a philosopher, author of a book published in Amsterdam in 1710, Theodicy, in which the author defends the position that everything that exists is good.
Voilà vite résumée la théorie de l'optimisme de Leibniz.
Here is a quick summary of Leibniz's theory of optimism.
Il pense que ce monde est le meilleur des mondes possibles.
He thinks this world is the best of all possible worlds.
Il est d'un optimisme absolu.
His optimism is absolute.
Leibniz développe l'idée que dans l'acte de la création, Dieu parfait a choisi de créer le meilleur des mondes possibles selon sa bonté infinie et sa perfection.
Leibniz develops the idea that in the act of creation, God who is perfect chose to create the best of all possible worlds based on his infinite goodness and his perfection.
Comment alors peut-on expliquer l'existence du mal ?
How then can one explain the existence of evil?
Les causes finales du mal, quand on en remonte l'enchaînement, aboutissent toujours à un bien.
The final causes of evil, when we go back to it, always result in good.
Le mal est transitoire. Il n'existe que pour un bien futur.
Evil is transient. It exists only for a future good.
Vous retrouverez ces idées dans les discours de Pangloss, un des personnages majeurs de Candide.
You will find these ideas in the words of Pangloss, one of Candide's main characters.
Candide est ainsi un conte philosophique qui prend le contre-pied de la thèse de Leibniz.
Candide is thus a philosophical tale that takes the opposite view to Leibniz's thesis.
Car Voltaire, même s'il a été optimiste dans sa jeunesse, a été bouleversé par le spectacle du mal.
For Voltaire, even if he was optimistic in his youth, was upset by the spectacle of evil.
Le mal que les hommes s'infligent entre eux, comme la guerre de 7 ans qui oppose la Prusse à d'autres pays européens de 1756 à 1763.
The harm that men inflict on each other, such as the seven-year war between Prussia and other European countries from 1756 to 1763.
Et le mal que la nature peut provoquer comme le tremblement de terre de Lisbonne en 1755.
And the harm that nature can cause like the earthquake of Lisbon in 1755.
C'est ainsi que les thèses de Leibniz lui deviennent alors insupportables.
This is how the theses of Leibniz became unbearable for him.
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Added on 24 Oct 2017
Source: Folio+Vidéo
Youtube, 26 May 2014
01:50

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